How do rape myths and misconceptions hurt victims of sexual assault?

sexual assaultRape myths  hurt victims of sexual assault more than you can imagine.

Rape myths are not just a product of a sick mind, but an unfortunate response to subtle and not-so-subtle messages from religious and social groups, family, and media that communicate the legitimacy of these beliefs. For example some people believe that a Victim was asking for it  because she was wearing a short skirt. Also there is a belief among some people that if you accept an invitation to go on a date and your meal is paid for then you already know what is expected of you! There are many people who firmly believe what they are doing is acceptable. For example at a party a girl has too much to drink and to avoid driving under the influence she accepts an invitation to sleep over. She doesn't realise that her host thought that by "sleeping over" she, without actually saying anything, had agreed to have sex with him even if  she had fallen into a deep sleep!

Here is a long list of myths and misconceptions

One word to describe them is fatuous which in simple terms means silly and pointless but sadly so many people actually believe them to be true

Myth: Rape is an impulsive crime. It is an act of sexual gratification.

Fact: 90% of group rapes are planned. 58% of single rapes are planned. 75% of all rapes are planned. Practically every word of this myth can be converted by facts. Impulsive, controllable; as seen above, a majority of rapes are planned. Also, one important emotional payoff for the rapist is to be in control, not out of control. The primary motive displayed by most convicted rapist is aggression, dominance, and anger, NOT sex. Sex is used as a weapon to inflict violence, humiliation, and conquest on a victim.

Myth: Mexico excuse for the rich

Fact: A Mexican judge has freed a wealthy young man accused of abducting and sexually assaulting a schoolgirl, on the grounds that the perpetrator did not enjoy himself. Amazing immoral behaviour

Myth: Rape is not a serious problem in our country.

Fact: Rape is the fastest-growing and most under reported crime. Over "one-third" of all women in this country will be sexually assaulted or abused in their lifetime. An estimated 4-5 out of every 10 of all American children (under 16) are sexually molested. 50% are males. Studies show about 90% of these involve someone the child already knows. Only about 1 in 10 rapes of adults is reported, and fewer assaults of children are reported.

Myth: Only young beautiful women are raped.

Fact: Although women between the ages of 15 and 25 are at somewhat higher risk of sexual assault than any other age groups, victims of reported rape in this country range from 3 weeks old to 93 years old.

Myth: Good people don't get raped. Only bad people get raped.

Fact: Rapist and other sex offenders attack people of all races, ages, social backgrounds, and all moral persuasions. Yet many people believe in this myth. It serves as a defence mechanism for them. People feel safer if they believe that something that the victim did, or some way the victim lived, provoked the attack. Therefore, if they continue to live and act circumspectly, nothing bad will happen to them. This is, perhaps, one of the most dangerous myths anybody can believe.

Myth: Rape is just sex.

Fact: Rape is experienced by the victims as an act of violence. It is a life-threatening experience. One out of every eight adult women has been a victim of forcible rape. (National Victim Center and Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, 1992) While sexual attraction may be influential, power, control and anger are the primary motives. Most rapists have access to a sexual partner. Gratification comes from gaining power and control and discharging anger. This gratification is only temporary, so the rapist seeks another victim.

Myth: Women incite men to rape.

Fact: Research has found that the vast majority of rapes are planned. Rape is the responsibility of the rapist alone. Women, children and men of every age, physical type and demeanour are raped. Opportunity is the most important factor determining when a given rapist will rape.

Myth: There is a "right way" to respond to a rape situation.

Fact: Since rape is life-threatening and each rapist has his own pattern, the best thing a victim can do is follow her instincts and observe any cues from the rapist. If the victim escapes alive she has done the right thing.

Myth: A victim should be discouraged from dwelling on the rape. She should "forget it" or "get over it".

Fact: This advice generally comes from people who are more concerned with their own feelings than the victim's. All victims should be offered the opportunity to talk about the assault with those personally close to them and knowledgeable professionals. Victims who are not allowed to talk about the rape have a much more difficult time recovering from it.

Myth: Support from family members is essential to the victim's recovery.

Fact: A Victim Services study found that emotional and practical support offered by family and friends does not necessarily speed the recovery of rape victims. However, when the people that a victim relies on behave in unsupportive or negative ways, the victim faces a longer, more difficult recovery process. These negative behaviours include worrying more about oneself that the victim, blaming the victim, withdrawing from the victim or behaving in a hostile manner, and attaching a stigma to the rape and demanding secrecy from the victim.

Myth: Rape trauma syndrome is a transient problem. Most healthy people will return to a normal state of functioning within a year.

Fact: Surviving a rape can lead a woman to a better understanding of her own strength, but rape is a life changing experience. Rape has a devastating effect on the mental health of victims, with nearly one-third (31%) of all rape victims developing Rape-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (RR-PTSD) some time in their lifetimes. More than one in ten rape victims currently suffer from RR-PTSD. (National Victim Center and Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center)

Myth: Rapists are non-white. Rapists are lower class. Rapists are "Criminal types".

Fact: Rapists that fit the myth are more likely to be prosecuted but a rapist can be anyone: doctor, policeman, clergyman, social worker or corporate president.

Myth: Men can't be raped.

Fact: There were approximately 20,000 sexual assaults of males ages 12 and over in the United States in 1991. (Bureau of Justice statistics, 1992)

Myth: Incest is rare.

Fact: Incest is common and happens in every community. An estimated 77% of reported sexual abusers are parents (57% of the total being natural parents), 16% are other relatives, and 6% are non-related. In addition, males are reported to be the abusers in 60 to 95% of cases. (Thoringer, School Psychology Review, 17 (4):614-636)

Myth: Rapes are rare deviations and affect few people. After all, no one I know has been raped.

Fact: Rapes are very common. Most likely, someone close to you has been profoundly affected by sexual assault. Not only are victims reluctant to discuss their assaults but many succeed in totally blocking the assault from conscious memory. However, the trauma remains and may come to the surface at another crisis or when the opportunity to discuss it with a sympathetic person arises. An estimated 155,000 women were raped each year between 1973 and 1987. (U.S. Department of Justice, 1991)

Myth: You can tell a rapist by the way he looks.

Fact: Rapists are not physically identifiable. They may appear friendly, normal, and non-threatening. Many are young, married and have children. Rapist types and traits however can be categorised.

Myth: Women fantasise about being raped.

Fact: No woman fantasises about being raped. Fantasies about aggressive sex may be controlled and turned off if they become threatening. In rape, the victim is unable to control the violence and stop it.

Myth: Only "bad" women get raped.

Fact: No other crime victim is looked upon with the degree of suspicion and doubt as a victim of rape. Although there are numerous reasons why society has cast blame on the victims of rape, a major reason found in studies is that of a feeling of self-protection. If one believes that the victim was responsible because she put herself in an unsafe position, such as being out late at night, drinking alcohol, dressing in a certain way, or "leading on" the rapist, then we are able to feel safer because "we wouldn't do those things." But, the basic fact remains that without consent, no means no, no matter what the situation or circumstances.

Myth: Rape is just unwanted sex and isn't really a violent crime.

Fact: Rape is a lot more than an unwanted sex act, it is a violent crime. Many rapists carry a weapon and threaten the victim with violence or death.

Myth: Rape only occurs outside and at night.

Fact: Rape can and does occur anytime and anyplace. Many rapes occur during the day and in the victims' homes.

Myth: Sexual assault is an impulsive, spontaneous act.

Fact: Most rapes are carefully planned by the rapist. A rapist will rape again and again, usually in the same area of town and in the same way.

Myth: Sexual assault usually occurs between strangers.

Fact: By some estimates, over 70% of rape victims know their attackers. The rapist may be a relative, friend, co-worker, date or other acquaintance.

Myth: Rape only happens to young attractive women.

Fact: Rape can and does strike anyone at any time. Age, social class, ethnic group and has no bearing on the person a rapist chooses to attack. Research data clearly proves that a way a woman dresses and / or acts does not influence the rapist’s choice of victims. His decision to rape is based on how easily he perceives his target can be intimidated. Rapists are looking for available and vulnerable targets.

Myth: Rape is a crime of passion.

Fact: Rape is an act of VIOLENCE, not passion. It is an attempt to hurt and humiliate, using sex as the weapon.

Myth: Most rapes occur as a "spur of the moment" act in a dark alley by a stranger.

Fact: Rape often occurs in one's home - be it apartment, house or dormitory. Very often the rapist is known by the victim in some way and the rape is carefully planned.

Myth: Most rapists only rape one time.

FACT Most rapists rape again, and again, and again - until caught.

Myth: Only certain kinds of people get raped. It cannot happen to me.

FACT Rapists act without considering their victim's physical appearance, dress, age, race, gender, or social status. Assailants seek out victims who they perceive to be vulnerable. The Orange County Rape Crisis Center has worked with victims from infancy to ninety-two years of age and from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds.

Myth: Only women and gay men get raped.

FACT The vast majority of male rape victims, as well as their rapists, are heterosexual. Male rape victims now represent 8% of the primary victims served by the Orange County Rape Crisis Center. Rapists are motivated by the desire to have power and control over another person, not by sexual attraction. Male rape is not homosexual rape. Many male victims do not report the assault because they fear further humiliation.

Myth: No woman or man can be raped against her or his will. Any person could prevent rape if he or she really wanted to.

FACT In 1991, 14% of the rapes reported to the Orange County Rape Crisis Center involved the use of a weapon. 74% involved physical force and/or threats of force. Women are often physically weaker than men and are not taught to defend themselves or to be physically aggressive. Furthermore, some women are not willing to hurt another person, especially if the offender is someone they know.

Myth: Most rapes occur when people are out alone at night. If people stay at home, then they will be safer.

FACT 44% of rapes reported to the Orange County Rape Crisis Center in 1991 occurred in the victim's home.

Myth: Rapists are strangers. If people avoid strangers, then they will not be raped.

FACT  Assaults by assailants the victim knows are often not reported so the statistics do not reflect the actual numbers of acquaintance rapes. Generally strangers are in the minority.

Myth: If the assailant, victim, or both are drunk, the assailant cannot be charged with rape.

FACT Forcing sex on someone who is too drunk to give consent is  rape in most countries. Rape is a crime. People who commit crimes while under the influence of alcohol or drugs are not considered free from guilt.

Myth: Rapists are abnormal perverts; only sick or insane men are rapists.

FACT In a study of 1300 convicted offenders, few were diagnosed as mentally or emotionally ill. Most were well-adjusted but had a greater tendency to express their anger through violence and rage.

Myth: Rape is a minor crime affecting only a few women.

FACT It is estimated that 1 in 8 women will be raped in her lifetime. Because of low reporting rates, it is not known how many adult men are assaulted. It is also estimated that 1 out of every 4 girls, and 1 out of every 8 boys are sexually assaulted in some way before they reach adulthood. Rape is the most frequently committed violent in any country.

Myth: Women frequently cry rape; false reporting of rape is common.

FACT The FBI reports that only 2% of rapes reports are given falsely. This is the same report rate for other felonies.

Myth: Most rapes occur on the street, by strangers, or by a few crazy men.

FACT Over 50% of reported rapes occur in the home. 80% of sexual assaults reported by college age women and adult women were perpetrated by close friends or family members. There is no common profile of a rapist. Rapes are committed by people from all economic levels, all races, and all occupations. A rapist can be your doctor, your boss, your clergyman, your superintendent, your partner, your lover, your friend or your date.

Myth: You cannot be assaulted against your will.

FACT Assailants overpower their victims with the threat of violence or with actual violence. Especially in cases of acquaintance rape or incest, an assailant often uses the victim's trust in him to isolate her.

Myth: Women secretly enjoy being raped.

FACT No woman/ man/ child enjoys being raped. It is a brutal intrusion on the mind, body and spirit that can have lasting trauma.

Myth: It is impossible for a husband to sexually assault his wife.

FACT Regardless of marital or social relationship, if a woman does not consent to sexual activity, she is being sexually assaulted. In fact, 14% of women are victims of rape committed by their husband.

Myth: If a person doesn't "fight back" she/he wasn't really raped.

FACT Rape is potentially life-threatening. Whatever a person does to survive the assault is the appropriate action.

Myth: A person who has really been assaulted will be hysterical.

FACT: Survivors exhibit a spectrum of emotional responses to assault: calm, hysteria, laughter, anger, apathy, shock. Each survivor copes with the trauma of the assault in a different way.

Myth: Women "ask for it" by their dress or actions.

FACT Rapists look for victims they perceive as vulnerable, not women who dress in a particular way. Assuming that women provoke attacks by where they are or the way they dress is victim-blaming. No person, whatever their behaviour, "deserves" to be raped.

Myth: Gang rape is rare.

FACT: In 43% of all reported cases, more than one assailant was involved.

Myth: Women who are drunk are willing to engage in any kind of sexual activity.

FACT The fact that a woman has been drinking does not imply consent. Alcohol and drugs can render a woman incapable of consent.

Myth: Only young, pretty women are assaulted.

FACT Survivors range in age from infancy to old age, and their appearance is seldom a consideration. Assailants often choose victims who seem most vulnerable to attack: old persons, children, physically or emotionally disabled persons, substance abusers and street persons. Men are also attacked.

Myth: It is impossible to sexually assault a man.

FACT Men fall victim for the same reasons as women: they are overwhelmed by threats or acts of physical and emotional violence. Also, most sexual assaults that involve a male victim are gang assaults.

Myth: As long as children remember to stay away from strangers, they are in no danger of being assaulted.

FACT Sadly, children are usually assaulted by acquaintances; a family member or other carer adult. Children are usually coerced into sexual activity by their assailant, and are manipulated into silence by the assailant's threats and/or promises, as well as their own feelings of guilt.

Myth: Most rapes involve black men raping white women.

FACT The majority of rapes are same race; somewhere around 3 to 4% are not same race.

Myth: Sexual assault does not occur often.

Reality: Sexy comments is experienced by Canadian women every day at home, at work, at school, or on the street. A 1993 survey found that one half of all Canadian women have experienced at least one incident of sexual or physical violence. Almost 60% of these women were the targets of more than one of these incidents. (Statistics Canada, “The Violence Against Women Survey,” The Daily, November 18, 1993).

Myth: Women lie about being sexually assaulted to get revenge, for their own benefit, or because they feel guilty afterwards about having sex.

Reality: Women rarely make false reports about sexual crimes

Myth: The best way for a woman to protect herself from sexual attempts is to avoid being alone at night in dark, deserted places such as alleys or parking lots.

Reality: Most assaults occur in a private home. Most assaults occur in a private home (60%) and the largest percentage of these occur in the victim’s home (38%) (D. Kinnon, “Report on Sexual Assault in Canada,” Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Ottawa, 1981).

Myth: Women who are sexually assaulted ask for it by the way they dress or act.

Reality: No one asks for it. Reports show that there is a lot of diversity in the way women who are assaulted act and dress. Any woman of any age and physical type, in almost any situation can be sexually assaulted. The number one thing convicted rapists report looking for in a victim is vulnerability, not appearance. This myth takes the responsibility of the rape away from the rapist and shifts it to the victim. No one asks to be hurt in this way.

Myth: Rape only happens to young sexy women.

Reality: Women of all ages are sexually assaulted. Women from two months old to ninety years old have been sexually assaulted. According to previous accounts of rape, rapists chose women based on their vulnerability, not on their physical appearance.

Myth: Men who sexually assault women are either mentally ill or sexually starved.

Reality: Studies of rapists state that rapists are ordinary or normal men. Recent research shows some have psychopathic problems.

Myth: Rape is a sexual act that is taken too far.

Rape is an act of violence; it involves asserting control over another person and taking their power from them. Rapists use a person’s sexuality against their will as a weapon. Rapists are not men who cannot control their sexual desires; rape is most often a premeditated crime.

Myth: Men of certain races and backgrounds are more likely to sexually assault women.

Rapists come from every economic, ethnic, racial, age, and social group. As well, women who are sexually assaulted are from every economic, ethnic, racial, age, and social group.

Myth: It is only rape if weapons are used.

Reality: A weapon and visible physical injuries do not have to be present.Any unwanted act of a sexual nature that one person imposes on another. A weapon and visible physical injuries do not have to be present.

Myth: Unless she is physically harmed, a woman who has been sexually assaulted will not suffer any long-term effects.

Reality: Sexual attacks can have serious effects on women’s health and well-being. It is important to remember that, although reactions like anger, mistrust, and sadness are common, not all women experience the same emotions or express them in the same way. Because a woman does not feel or act a certain way does not mean that her experience was not legitimate.

Myth: If a woman consents to have sex at the start of making out with her boyfriend, then she is not assaulted if she changes her mind, but her partner keeps on going.

Just because a woman is in a relationship with someone or has sex with a person before does not mean that person cannot assault her. Consent must be given every time two people engage in sexual contact and may be stopped at anytime.

Myth: If a woman has had many sexual partners then she cannot be sexually assaulted.

A woman can also be assaulted by someone who she has been intimate with in the past. Consent must be freely given each time two people are intimate with each other. Imagine saying to a person who had been robbed. "You've given money away before....."

Myth: If a man pays for dinner or a movie, the woman owes him sex.

Reality: NO means NO, whether a man pays for a date or not. A woman is not obligated to have sex at any time.

Myth: When men become sexually aroused they have to have sex and cannot stop.

Reality: Although a man may say that when they want to have sex, however there are no negative consequences if he does not have sex when he is aroused. A man’s desire is not more important than a woman’s right to choose who she does and does not have sex with.

Myth: When a woman says no, she really means maybe or yes.

Reality: Although a man may believe he is receiving mixed messages, this is no excuse for rape. When a woman says “no”, her partner should stop; he should never assume that “no” means anything else but “no”. If someone is unclear about what the partner wants, they should ask. The onus for obtaining consent is on the person initiating sexual contact. Ignorance or pleading misunderstanding is not a legitimate legal defence for sexual assault.

Myth: If a woman is drunk or passed out from drinking too much it is okay to have sex with her.

Reality: If a person is unconscious or their judgement is impaired by alcohol or drugs, legally, they cannot give consent. Having sex with anyone when they are drunk is sexual assault.

Myth: If the attacker is drunk at the time of the assault then they cannot be accused of rape.

Reality: Being drunk is not an acceptable legal defence an accused rapist can use. The attacker is responsible for their actions no matter how intoxicated they are. Being drunk is not an excuse to force sex on anyone legally. Being drunk is not an acceptable legal defence an accused rapist can use. Imagine a drunk driver running over a person and killing them using the same excuse>

Myth: It is okay for a man to pressure a woman into having sex.

Reality: Any type of verbal or physical coercion that is used to obtain sex is legally considered sexual assault. In some countries if your boss makes a sexual suggestion they will be charged.

Myth: A woman cannot be raped if she does not want to be.

Reality: Force or threat of force is often used by rapists to assault their victims. Rapists will often choose victims they believe they can physically overcome. This myth is used to blame the victim; it is important to remember that no matter what a woman does during an assault, whether she chooses to physically resist or not, it is not her fault. She did what she had to in order to get out of a very difficult experience alive. Keep in mind that many victims are killed.

Myth: You can tell if a woman is really sexually assaulted by the way she acts.

Reality: There is no ONE way to act and feel after a sexual assault. It is important to remember that, although reactions like anger, mistrust, and sadness are common, not all women experience the same emotions or express them in the same way. How a woman responds after a sexual assault can be influenced by factors such as her cultural background, whether she knows her attacker or not, her support system, how she views her experience, or what someone has said to her. Because a woman does not feel or act a certain way does not mean that her experience of sexual assault was not legitimate.

Myth: It is only sexual assault if a woman has been physically injured.

Reality: Most women who are sexually assaulted do not have visible injuries. This does not make the experience less of an assault; nor does it mean that a woman will not have any negative effects from her assault. Many victims find police lose interest when there are no visible injuries.

Myth: Sexual assault is usually a misunderstanding.

One familiar story of campus sexual assault goes like this: A young woman and a young man are at a party. They both have too much to drink and wind up going home together. They have sex — maybe she said no, or maybe not, but in any case, she regrets it the next day and feels like she was assaulted. But he didn't mean it; it was all just a terrible miscommunication, and now the case is simply he said-she said. In fact, research shows that 90 percent of campus rapists are repeat offenders, averaging nearly six victims apiece, and they often go undetected. Men and women both understand social cues, including nonverbal indications that someone doesn't want to have sex. Acquaintance rapists — the kind who are likely to be targeting fellow students on campus — have a very specific plan. Those predatory men intentionally target women they perceive as vulnerable, and they often ply them with alcohol, sometimes until their victims pass out, and then they sexually assault them. They rely on the misconception that whatever happened was a miscommunication, a misunderstanding, a drunken mistake. And they rely on the fallacy that drunk girls are kinda-sorta asking for it. Because so many people believe these misconceptions, rapists get away with their crimes and seek out other victims. It's the exact opposite of a misunderstanding — it's a series of calculated decisions.

Myth: It's usually strangers who commit sexually motivated assault.

The typical image of a stranger rapist jumping out of the bushes is far from universal. Yes, there are stranger rapists, but far more often, sexual assailants attack people they know. Two-thirds of rape survivors know their attacker; more than a third of rapists are a family member or friend of the victim. The statistics are even more extreme on college campuses, where 80 to 90 percent of such assaults involve students who know each other.

Myth: It's only rape if you're violently, physically forced into penetrative sex.

Colleges and Universities and Governments define rape and sexual assault differently, but it's generally understood as non-consensual sexual activity, which can be anything from penetrative sex to unwanted sexual touching or groping. And rape doesn't require a penis — objects or fingers can be used to rape or assault. The definition of "consent" also differs — some schools use an "affirmative consent" model, where a person has to give an actual, genuine, and non-coerced "yes" for consent to be obtained, whereas others have more outdated, regressive definitions that in practice require non-consenting parties to give a verbal "no." Most, though, do recognise that drugs and alcohol can impair one's ability to give meaningful consent. And women's rights advocates more or less agree that affirmative consent is the standard.

It is however common for Colleges and Universities to cover up such crimes to avoid being seen as unsafe for students

Myth: Women put themselves at risk if they're promiscuous, if they dress provocatively, or if they flirt.

One of the oldest rape myths out there is that women invite assault, or make themselves more vulnerable to it, by dressing or acting "provocatively" (provoking, apparently, a male lust so insatiable that men commit violent crimes). But across the country, the overwhelming majority of men manage to see women in short skirts and have entire, sometimes flirtatious, conversations with women to whom they are physically attracted without raping them. The difference between a night out in a short skirt that ends in rape and one that doesn't isn't the clothing or the woman's behaviour — it's the presence of a rapist. And despite decades of "she was asking for it in that skirt" commentary, no one has ever been able to show a correlation between how a victim dresses and her chances of sexual assault.

Myth: If you have had sex before you were raped you are assumed to have probably said yes again.

This is often used by defence lawyers. A woman's sexual history used as evidence that she wasn't really raped, the assumption being that if she consented to sex before, she probably consented again. That's not bolstered by any actual data, and it's nonsensical: Why does the fact that a woman enjoys sex, perhaps with more than one person throughout the course of her life, have any bearing on whether she was assaulted? Why would a "promiscuous" woman who apparently consented to sex with several partners have any incentive to suddenly turn around and claim she was raped?

Myth: Rape doesn't happen very often to University Students

One in five college-age women are sexually assaulted. But less than 1 in 20 assaults is ever reported to police.

Myth: Campus rapists are always expelled.

There aren't great statistics on campus disciplinary outcomes because many colleges are protective of their reputation thus secretive about their numbers, but one survey suggests that only 10 to 25 percent of men found responsible for sexual assault are expelled. And that's only looking at men found responsible — many more are not reported, never face charges or are let off the hook.

Myths: Most rapists go to jail.

Most rapists never see the inside of a courtroom, let alone a jail cell — only 2 percent of rapists caught are ever punished.

Myth: Most Rapes occur when drugs are used

There aren't great statistics on how common roofies (also known as Rohypnol or Flunitrazepam) are — they're often out of a victim's system by the time she reaches the hospital, making their use difficult to track — but the experts agree that alcohol is a much more common "date rape drug" than roofies. According to one study, 72 percent of female rape victims on college campuses were intoxicated to the point where they couldn't consent to sex. Unfortunately, much of the media use headlines like "drunk girls get themselves raped." In reality, sexual predators target women they perceive as vulnerable, often underclassmen who don't have much experience drinking and don't yet have strong social support networks at school — 84 percent of women sexually assaulted in college said their assaults happened in their freshman or sophomore years.

Myth: If an alleged victim is inconsistent about what happened, she's lying.

ABOUT WRITING A NOTE

Myth: You can’t prosecute anyone for a rape that happened a year ago.

In our founder’s case she tracked down a Rapist and won a case against him 12 years later

Myth: Don’t publicise Rape

This is based on the theory that reporting crimes encourage people to copy them. Jane’s Research Team found no evidence to suggest the increase in reporting is directly associated with an increase in perpetration however there has been some benefit in not reporting suicides. This Organisation prefers to highlight cases where the perpetuators are arrested and jailed. Talking about and defining sexual harassment or assault and methods of prevention plus education of society has positive outcomes.

SOURCES

Statistics were obtained from various sources including COURT RECORDS; the study Rape in America, 1992, National Victim Center, The Federal Bureau of Investigations and the National Crime Survey; others are mentioned within the text above.

There is no copyright on any items designed to prevent justice and it is the duty of everyone to make sure that these myths are never used in defence of criminals.

It is useful if you know of any myths not listed here to lets us know and we will add them.

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